See, e.g., id., at 49, n. 79 ("The Law School's .

Four other Justices would have struck the program down on statutory grounds. The majority today refuses to be faithful to the settled principle of strict review designed to reflect these concerns.

Id., at 120. They certainly have not explained why Hispanics, who they.

Ibid. Id., at 551, n. 19. Ct., 125 Ill. 2d 531, 533 N.E.2d 790 (1988) In re HaleCommittee on Character and Fitness for the Third … O'CONNOR, J., delivered the opinion of the Court, in which STEVENS, SOUTER, GINSBURG, and BREYER, JJ., joined, and in which SCALIA and THOMAS, JJ., joined in part insofar as it is consistent with the views expressed in Part VII of the opinion of THOMAS, J. GINSBURG, J., filed a concurring opinion, in which BREYER, J., joined, post, p. 344. to Pet.

N arrow tailoring does not require exhaustion of every conceivable race-neutral alternative or mandate that a university choose between maintaining a reputation for excellence or fulfilling a commitment to provide educational opportunities to members of all racial groups.
That is where the competition becomes tight and where any given applicant's chance of admission is far smaller if he or she lacks minority status. Bakke, 438 U. S., at 298 (opinion of Powell, J.). The certification regime supplemented, and later virtually replaced (at least in the Midwest), the prior regime of rigor-. "These programs stamp minorities with a badge of inferiority and may cause them to develop dependencies or to adopt an attitude that they are 'entitled' to preferences."

. These statistics have a significant bearing on petitioner's case. Individuals with law degrees occupy roughly half the state governorships, more than half the seats in the United States Senate, and more than a third of the seats in the United States House of Representatives. See Brief for Respondent Bollinger et al. Because the Equal Protection Clause renders the color of one's skin constitutionally irrelevant to the Law School's mission, I refer to the Law School's interest as an "aesthetic."

[1][2], In 1996, Barbara Grutter, a white Michigan resident with a 3.8 grade point average and 161 Law School Admissions Test (LSAT) score, was rejected by the University of Michigan Law School. Properly understood, a "quota" is a program in which a certain fixed number or proportion of opportunities are "reserved exclusively for certain minority groups."


2411, 2003 WL 21434002 (GINSBURG, J., dissenting); Adarand Constructors, Inc. v. Peña, 515 U.S. 200, 272–274, 115 S.Ct.


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