For example, if a telecommunications satellite of an operator from state A is launched from the territory of state B with the assistance of a launch provider from state C, all these states A, B, and C may qualify as launching states and, therefore, be held liable if such satellite causes damage. If damage is caused in outer space, for instance, by the collision of two telecommunications satellites, their launching states can only be held liable if damage results from their fault. Finally, the next one in the Syncom-series satellites—Syncom 3—was placed at the 180° E geostationary orbital position.

A 30.5-meter diameter aluminum-coated balloon, which contained no instrument and was only able to reflect signals from the ground, established the first voice satellite communication and the first coast-to-coast satellite telephone call (NASA, 2019). In this regard, states are called to limit the spectrum that they use to the minimum which is essential for the provision of necessary services in a satisfactory manner, and to apply the latest technical advances as soon as possible (ITU Constitution, 2018, Art.

In accordance with Article II of the Registration Convention such state shall establish a national registry of objects launched into outer space, inform the UN Secretary-General of its establishment, and include in such registry its space objects—this being applicable to telecommunications satellites. While international space law covers the use of space and the conduction of space activities, the ITU regime regulates the use of radio frequencies, which are employed by space activities, including satellite communications.

However, the future development of satellite communications was inseparably connected with the use of the geostationary satellite orbit. There exist two main approaches as to what is meant by peaceful purposes.

Since international space law is developing parallel with space technol-ogy, the treatise reflects this close relationship of natural and social sciences.

Satellite telecommunications is based on the use of satellites—human-made objects launched into outer space and placed in orbits around the Earth—to provide communications channels between different locations on the Earth.

��F��y�P12Kt�ӒH����^-�=��o�Q�ë2�d�rџ²_��S�ȟ �7EHb��9���&�-�X��B ^�,Ľ�/v�!vץ�Vm��8�W��S|�3�1sJK)�Gr)i�� endstream endobj 529 0 obj <>stream Registration Convention: In 1976, it created a system to identify and register space objects. Communications satellites are located far away from the Earth, hundreds and thousands of kilometers above our heads, and their operation is regulated by specific international rules mainly composed of international space law and the ITU regime. Therefore, every telecommunications satellite system is to be established and operated in accordance with the international legal regime of the radio-frequency spectrum and associated satellite orbits developed under the auspices of ITU, including, above all, the ITU Radio Regulations.

VIII) referred to states on whose registry space objects were carried, however, without specifying the exact mechanism of registration. PRINTED FROM the OXFORD RESEARCH ENCYCLOPEDIA, PLANETARY SCIENCE (oxfordre.com/planetaryscience). The first step in the process of spectrum management is the allocation which can be described as reservation of frequency bands for the use by a specific radiocommunication service (Radio Regulations, 2016, No. According to the Outer Space Treaty, outer space shall be free for exploration and use by all states (General Assembly Resolution 2222, 1966). Therefore, a state shall assure that its national space activities are carried out in conformity with the provisions of the Outer Space Treaty and can be held internationally responsible if, for example, a satellite operator under its jurisdiction fails to follow the treaty’s provisions.

Therefore, it is generally believed that consequential and indirect damage is not compensable under the Liability Convention. As jurisdiction and control set forth in the Outer Space Treaty are international law concepts, they cannot be exercised by a private company and rest with a state. The latter considers satellites as “space objects” and regulates liability, registration, jurisdiction and control, debris mitigation, and touches upon ownership.

Neither the Liability Convention obliges persons who are caused the damage, to refund a respective state for what it has paid to compensate such damage. It means that the geostationary satellite orbit is a physically limited space at a specific altitude and in the plane of the Earth’s equator having the form of a ring or a doughnut.

As a result, a satellite operator will not be entitled to the recovery of lost profits caused by damage to its telecommunications satellite under the Liability Convention, although other relevant rules of international public law and national laws might be applied. Both radio-frequency spectrum and associated satellite orbits are limited natural resources, which are utilized in conformity with the specific international telecommunications regime developed by ITU.



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