While there is certainly still lots to learn about the systems under σB control and the roles they play in survival of this pathogen in the environment, the biggest outstanding questions relate to the mechanisms that control the activation of σB. Once in the cytoplasm, L. monocytogenes exploits host actin for the second time. Those reports subsequently were disavowed, and it became clear that L. monocytogenes could not survive standard pasteurization. Listeria monocytogenes is a member of the Listeria genus, which also includes other species: Listeria ivanovii, Listeria seeligeri, Listeria innocua, and Listeria welshimeri (Table 1). Uptake is stimulated by the binding of listerial internalins (Inl) to E-cadherin, a host cell adhesion factor, or Met (c-Met), hepatocyte growth factor. Furthermore, the adaptive response to low pH has the capacity to induce cross protection against other stresses including those encountered during intestinal growth (bile salts, elevated osmolarity). More often, systemic infection, such as life‐threatening meningoencephalitis or bacteremia, results in patients of certain risk groups (e.g., neonates, pregnant women, and immunocompromised hosts).

Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is the most commonly used molecular method for epidemiologic investigations of suspected outbreaks. [1] Nevertheless, clinical diseases due to L. monocytogenes are more frequently recognized by veterinarians, especially as meningoencephalitis in ruminants.

Listeriae are naturally resistant to cephalosporins, and resistance to macrolides, fluoroquinolones, and tetracyclines has been observed, which can limit the utility of these drugs. The organism can withstand freezing, but it is inactivated by heating at 60 °C for 30 min. These postgenomic studies, comparing pathogenic strains of L. monocytogenes and the closely related species Listeria innocua, have led to the discovery of new virulence factors. Studies suggest up to 10% of human gastrointestinal tracts may be colonized by L.

They are catalase positive and oxidase negative.

Its presence intracellularly in phagocytic cells also permits access to the brain and probably transplacental migration to the fetus in pregnant women.
Infection with Listeria monocytogenes shows an early stage of lymphocyte apoptosis.

Due to its frequent pathogenicity, causing meningitis in newborns (acquired transvaginally), pregnant mothers are often advised not to eat soft cheeses such as Brie, Camembert, feta, and queso blanco fresco, which may be contaminated with and permit growth of L. Figure 2. [41] Bacteriophage treatments have been developed by several companies. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Learn how your comment data is processed. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. The organism can grow at temperatures ranging from <1 °C to approximately 50 °C, with an optimum temperature of 30–37 °C. Surviving neonates of fetomaternal listeriosis may suffer granulomatosis infantiseptica — pyogenic granulomas distributed over the whole body — and may suffer from physical retardation. It seems that Listeria originally evolved to invade membranes of the intestines, as an intracellular infection, and developed a chemical mechanism to do so. Detailed study of L. monocytogenes has led to its use as a potential candidate for antigen delivery against a number of cancers, thus providing a compelling example of how understanding the natural pathogenesis of an organism can lead to unprecedented advances in both medicine and physiology. Listeria monocytogenes is a ubiquitous microorganism responsible for listeriosis, a rare but severe disease in humans, who can become infected by ingesting contaminated food products, namely dairy, meat, fish, and vegetables. [1][2] Responsible for an estimated 1,600 illnesses and 260 deaths in the United States annually, listeriosis ranks third in total number of deaths among foodborne bacterial pathogens, with fatality rates exceeding even Salmonella spp.

This mode of direct cell-to-cell spread involves a cellular mechanism known as paracytophagy. It is significant that the pathogen is regularly exposed to low pH environments during the infectious cycle; in acidic foods, upon passage through the gastric barrier, and subsequently, upon entry to the host cell phagosome. Laboratories can isolate Listeria monocytogenes from soil, silage, and other environmental sources. People at high risk of infection should avoid eating raw or partially cooked foods of animal origin, soft cheeses, and unwashed raw vegetables. There is also substantial evidence that σB plays an important role in virulence. Foodborne Pathogenic Microorganisms and Natural Toxins Handbook: Listeria monocytogenes, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Listeria_monocytogenes&oldid=981587683, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2014, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 3 October 2020, at 07:40. These adhesion molecules are also to be found in two other unusually tough barriers in humans — the blood-brain barrier and the fetal–placental barrier, and this may explain the apparent affinity that L. monocytogenes has for causing meningitis and affecting babies in utero. Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive non-spore-forming rod on the order of 0.5–2 μm in length. For example L-glutamine, an abundant nitrogen source in the host, induces the expression of virulence genes in L. L. monocytogenes serotype 4b strains are responsible for 33 to 35% of sporadic human cases worldwide and for all major foodborne outbreaks in Europe and North America since the 1980s. However, barring postpasteurization contamination, properly pasteurized fluid milk products will be free of Listeria. [19], Invasive infection by L. monocytogenes causes the disease listeriosis. The incubation period is about 21 days for all forms of listeriosis, except for acute gastroenteritis (discussed later). Serologic and molecular typing methods are used for epidemiologic investigations. The regulatory networks governing control of these systems (including Sigma B and the two-component system LisRK) will also be discussed. Sheila Ryan, ... Cormac G.M. Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive bacterium, in the division Firmicutes, named after Joseph Lister. If the Gram stain shows organisms, they are intracellular and extracellular gram-positive coccobacilli. [14] [6] It is the third-most common cause of meningitis in newborns. 000198, "Listeria--review of epidemiology and pathogenesis", "Microbe Profile: Listeria monocytogenes: a paradigm among intracellular bacterial pathogens", "Campylobacter and Listeria infections still rising in the EU – say EFSA and ECDC - European Food Safety Authority", "The European Union summary report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food‐borne outbreaks in 2014", "Listeria monocytogenes regulates flagellar motility gene expression through MogR, a transcriptional repressor required for virulence", "Listeria monocytogenes, a food-borne pathogen", "Phylogenetic analysis of the genus Listeria based on reverse transcriptase sequencing of 16S rRNA", "Intraspecific phylogeny and lineage group identification based on the prfA virulence gene cluster of Listeria monocytogenes", "Listeria monocytogenes and listeric infections", "Isolation, characterization, and biological properties of an endotoxin-like material from the gram-positive organism Listeria monocytogenes", "Listeriolysin O: a genuine cytolysin optimized for an intracellular parasite", "Identification of a gene that positively regulates expression of listeriolysin, the major virulence factor of listeria monocytogenes", "Sigma B contributes to Listeria monocytogenes gastrointestinal infection but not to systemic spread in the guinea pig infection model", "L-glutamine Induces Expression of Listeria monocytogenes Virulence Genes", "Comparative genetic characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from human and animal listeriosis cases", "Listeria monocytogenes isolates from foods and humans form distinct but overlapping populations", "Anton test - definition of Anton test in the Medical dictionary - by the Free Online Medical Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia", "Clinical microbiology of coryneform bacteria", "Nonviral oncogenic antigens and the inflammatory signals driving early cancer development as targets for cancer immunoprevention", "Outbreak of Listeria Infections Linked to Hard-boiled Eggs", "Genome diversification in phylogenetic lineages I and II of Listeria monocytogenes: identification of segments unique to lineage II populations", "Listeria monocytogenes exploits normal host cell processes to spread from cell to cell", U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

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