This page was last edited on 24 October 2020, at 07:09. [75] On one extreme, the Arab Muslims are seen as being compelled by religious stricture to conquer and forcibly convert Sindh, but on the other hand, they can be seen as being respectful and tolerant of non-Muslims as part of their religious duty, with conversion being facilitated by the vitality, equality and morals of the Islamic religion. While Maclean doesn't give the details of the punishment, early historians like Ibn Hajar Al-asqalani and Tabari record that he was flogged by 400 lashes and his head and beard shaved for humiliation and that he fled to Khurasan and returned to Iraq after the ruler had been changed. Il fréquenta également l'imam Al Layth Ibn Sa'd et l'Imâm 'Abd Ul 'Azîz Ibn Al Mâjishûn [ 1 ] . [4] His birthplace was almost certainly in the Hejaz (western Arabia), either in Ta'if, the traditional home of his Thaqif tribe, or in Mecca or Medina. [5] The modern historian Nabi Bakhsh Baloch holds that Muhammad most likely grew up partly in Ta'if and then Basra and Wasit, the provincial capital of Iraq founded by al-Hajjaj in 702. [31], The conquest of Sindh, in modern-day Pakistan, although costly, was a major gain for the Umayyad Caliphate. [12] Usually after a siege of a few weeks or months the Arabs gained a city through the intervention of heads of mercantile houses with whom subsequent treaties and agreements would be settled. The Arabs attempted to invade India but they were defeated by the north Indian king Nagabhata of the Gurjara Pratihara Dynasty and by the south Indian Emperor Vikramaditya II of the Chalukya dynasty in the early 8th century. Dahir's son recaptured Brahmanabad and c. 720, he was granted pardon and included in the administration in return for converting to Islam. [24] Sayfi was one of the seven shias who were beheaded alongside Hujr ibn Adi al-Kindi in 660 AD near Damascus. [31] In the wake of the battle enemy soldiers were executed —though artisans, merchants and farmers were spared —and Dahir[clarification needed] and his chiefs, the "daughters of princes" and the usual fifth of the booty and slaves were sent to al-Hajjaj. There is some difference as to whether he was born after his father’s Prophethood began or before. [31] Upon securing the aid of Mokah Basayah, "the King of the island of Bet", Muhammad crossed over the river where he was joined by the forces of the Thakore of Bhatta and the western Jats. [31] In preparation to meet them, Muhammad returned to Nerun to resupply and receive reinforcements sent by al-Hajjaj. A. Rizvi, "A socio-intellectual History of Isna Ashari Shi'is in India", Volo. [24] Under the Umayyads (661 - 750 AD), many Shias sought asylum in the region of Sindh, to live in relative peace in the remote area. 830-910) was one of the great early mystics, or Sufis, of Islam. [2] Some traditions state that Al-Qāsim's mother was a daughter of Yazdegerd III and a sister of Shahrbanu, the mother of fourth Shi'a Imam, Ali ibn Husayn. J.-C à Mossoul, Irak. Muhammad ibn Qasim leading his troops in battle. [2] A detailed account of Muhammad's conquest of Sind and his death is found in the Chach Nama, a 13th-century Persian text. Muhammad bin Qasim al-Thaqafi (Arabic: محمد بن القاسم الثقفي‎, romanized: Muḥammad bin al-Qāsim al-Thaqafī; c. 695 – 715[1]), also known by the laqab (honorific epithet) of Imad ad-Din (Arabic: عماد الدين‎, romanized: ʿImād al-Dīn), was an Arab military commander of the Umayyad Caliphate who, during the reign of Caliph al-Walid I (r. 705–715), led the Muslim conquest of Sindh and Multan (both in present-day Pakistan) from the third and the last Maharaja of the Brahman dynasty, Raja Dahir in the battle of Aror.

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