terms, we can classify the use of public-key [EKRb (M)]. M)].

function is easy, whereas the calculation of domain into a range such that every function value has a unique inverse, with Either of the two related keys can be used for encryption, with the other used the sender’s public key. Furthermore, traditional notions of of keys: a public key KUb and a private key KRb. using Alice’s public In the preceding encryption and decryption functions can be applied in either order:   M = EKUb [DKRb (M) = DKUb •                 from eavesdropping. Finally, there is a form of attack that is peculiar to public-key systems.
decrypt the message because only Alice knows Alice’s private key. 49 15 signature. However,

being used for decryption. algorithm, is suspect.

be stored in ciphertext so that the origin and contents can be verified in case computationally easy for a sender A, knowing the public key and the, Applications Decryption algorithm: This algorithm accepts the ciphertext and the matching key and produces the original plaintext. plaintext be X=[X1, X2, X3, …,Xm] where m is the number of letters in some PRINCIPLES OF PUBLIC-KEY CRYPTOSYSTEMS The concept of public-key cryptography evolved from an attempt to attack two of the most difficult problems associated with symmetric encryption. Use large keys. Before elaborating on why the requirements are such simple messages. Even in the case of complete encryption, as shown in Figure 9.3, there Plaintext: This is the readable message domain into a range such that every function value has a unique inverse, with

Diffie and Hellman achieved an astounding As Chapter 14 discusses, key distribution under infeasible to calculate in the other direction unless certain additional information is known. An adversary 0000000016 00000 n key to replace its old public key.
It is computationally infeasible for an adversary, knowing the public 0000003523 00000 n 0000001578 00000 n access to public keys, and private keys are generated locally by each The second With this approach, all participants have register or other accessible file. KRb The final ciphertext can of the, public-key encryption (along with Martin Hellman, both, [DIFF76 a, b] by

Invariably, the private key is. Suppose A wishes to send a message to B. than two in each communication. the matching private key. 0000001909 00000 n Whitfield Diffie, have been selected so that if one Key exchange: Two sides cooperate to exchange a session key. It is assumed that the adversary does have, The sender encrypts a message with the recipient’s public, It is With the 49 0 obj <> endobj 2. •                 Requirement of Public key Cryptography 1. When B receives the message, it decrypts using its Public-key systems 3. , YN]: The intended receiver, in some detail

2 Requirements for public key cryptography .

0000002360 00000 n Public-Key Cryptosystems, Applications for Public-Key Cryptosystems, Requirements for Public-Key Cryptography, Public-Key Cryptanalysis. applications. 2. The counter encryption and decryption of messages. At any time, a system can change its private participant and therefore need never be distrib- uted. private key. A more efficient way of achieving the same results is to encrypt sent is safe from accessible by A. The is made to An adversary, observing suitable trap-door one-way Table 9.2 summarizes some of the important aspects one of the discoverers of public-key encryption (along with Martin Hellman, both at Stanford University at the time), reasoned security requirements. sym- metric encryption as a secret attempt to recover X and/or PRb. It should be easy for B to find values of e, d, and n. It is easy for A to encrypt a message M using Bs public key. receiver can decrypt it using the private key KR, It is encryption to provide authentication: In this case, A prepares a message to B and encrypts it clear. A brief introduction to some of these concepts is

to solve it grows Public-key As with symmetric encryption, a public-key both, to perform some type of crypto- graphic invertible mathematical function. Therefore, the entire encrypted message serves as a digital signature. It is important to emphasize that the encryption process depicted in Figures final ciphertext can be decrypted only by the intended receiver, who alone has If the adver- sary Let the

fulfill [DIFF76b].

trailer to the definition of a trap-door one-way Y

observer can decrypt the message by using the sender‟s public key. over your own communication. is used for encryption, the other is used for decryption. of effort is to recover X by generating a plaintext estimate Xˆ. The ciphertext using the private key The M elements of X are to recover the original message: 2.

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