AIAA Guidance and Control Conference, Key Biscayne, FL, 20–22 August 1973. The Titan II Missile program was a Cold War weapons system featuring fifty-four launch complexes in three states. The same first-stage rocket engine was used with some modifications.

The missiles had to be fueled before launch with an extremely flammable combination of highly refined kerosene and liquid oxygen. For the Titan III, the ASC-15 drum memory of the computer was lengthened to add 20 more usable tracks, which increased its memory capacity by 35%. [4], Liquid oxygen is dangerous to use in an enclosed space, such as a missile silo, and cannot be stored for long periods in the booster oxidizer tank. AIAA Paper No. On file at Arkansas Historic Preservation Program, Little Rock, Arkansas. The program began in January 1955 and took shape in parallel with the Atlas (SM-65/HGM-25) intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM). [8] A staff sergeant of the maintenance crew was killed while attempting a rescue and a total of twenty were hospitalized.[9]. Additional expenses were generated by the ground operations and facilities for the Titan IV at Vandenberg Air Force Base for launching satellites into polar orbits.
Navy crews launched a salvage effort to recover the reentry vehicle and the guidance system from the sea floor. Standing 103 feet tall and weighing a colossal 330,000 pounds, it had a range of up to 9,300 miles away (3,000 miles greater than the Titan I). Destruction of the launch complexes required demolition of the launch ducts to a depth of some twenty-five feet, followed by excavation of soil around the silo to that depth. The safe featured a separate lock for each operator, who unlocked it using a combination known only to him or herself. The Titan II also used storable propellants: Aerozine 50, which is a 1:1 mixture of hydrazine and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH), and dinitrogen tetroxide. The Titan II was an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) and space launcher developed by the Glenn L. Martin Company from the earlier Titan I missile. The computer system compensated by running the engine for an additional 111 seconds, when propellant depletion occurred. If you would like to make a donation by check, print this donation form, fill it out and mail it with your check to: Central Arkansas Library System Unlike the Titan I, it used hydrazine-based hypergolic propellant which was storable and reliably ignited. [3] The USGS was already in use on the Titan III space launcher when work began in March 1978 to replace the Titan II guidance system. Arkansas Historic Preservation Program. The missile was 31.3 m long and 3.05 m wide. Titan II's were operational for twenty-four years, starting in June 1963 and lasting through June 1987. [citation needed], The Titan IIID was the Vandenberg Air Force Base version of the Titan IIIC, without a Transtage, that was used to place members of the Key Hole series of reconnaissance satellites into polar low Earth orbits. The second stage used a single LR-91 rocket. Major support provided through a partnership with the Arkansas Department of Parks & Tourism. While it appeared that the pogo problem was largely contained on this flight, the second stage lost thrust again due to a restriction in the gas generator and so only achieved half its intended range. The signal was an audio transmission of a thirty-five letter code. One hundred and eight Titan-II ICBM (B-Types) were produced. This Template lists historical, current, and future space rockets that at least once attempted (but not necessarily succeeded in) an orbital launch or that are planned to attempt such a launch in the future, This page was last edited on 13 August 2020, at 15:36. One B-2, AF Ser. The Titan II program was part of the second generation of ICBMs, and missiles could be launched from within their silos in less than a minute; first generation missiles had to be raised from their silos, fueled, and then launched, which could take up to twenty minutes. This combination was used to launch the KH-8 GAMBIT series of intelligence-gathering satellites. [37], A real Alert Real Response AAFM September 19999, Note: In 1959, a fifth Titan II installation comprising the 13th and 14th squadrons at the former Griffiss Air Force Base, New York, was proposed, but never constructed. N-14 (9 May), flown from LC-16 at the Cape, suffered another early second stage shutdown due to a leaking oxidizer line. This warhead was guided to its target using an inertial guidance unit. The IMU would compensate and send steering commands to the engine actuators. It used an IMU (inertial measurement unit, a gyroscopic sensor) made by AC Spark Plug derived from original designs from MIT Draper Labs. Their maximum payload mass was about 7,500 lb (3,000 kg). Its inertial guidance system gave an accuracy of 900 meters CEP and was capable of making in-flight corrections without ground control input. AIAA Paper No. The 54 deployed Titan IIs formed the backbone of America's strategic deterrent force until the LGM-30 Minuteman ICBM was deployed en masse during the early to mid-1960s. The space launch vehicle versions contributed the majority of the 368 Titan launches, including all the Project Gemini crewed flights of the mid-1960s. This flight had been scheduled for launch in early 2001, but persistent problems with the booster and satellite delayed it over two years. In addition, Stage II contains the flight control system and missile guidance system. On the other hand, the exact reason for pogo was still unclear and a vexing problem for NASA. They proposed adding more standpipes to the first stage and using baffled injectors in the second stage.

Following the decommissioning of the Titan II as an ICBM, the remaining missiles were converted into space-launch vehicles for satellites and remained in that role until the final Titan II was launched in 2003.13, The Titan II was the largest and heaviest missile ever built by the United States. The Titan II's hypergolic fuel and oxidizer ignited on contact, but they were highly toxic and corrosive liquids. The oxidizer tank and fuel tank are welded structures consisting of forward and aft domes. The last Titan II missile, located at Silo 373-8 near Judsonia, Arkansas, was deactivated on 5 May 1987. Sheehan, Neil, “A Fiery Peace in a Cold War: Bernard Schriever and the Ultimate Weapon.” New York: Random House. Warhead: 9.0 mT Nuclear A systematic effort to improve the quality control of the LR-87 engines was launched, which included extensive redesigns of components to improve reliability as well as fixes to the gas generator restriction issue.[19][18]. All twelve Gemini capsules, including ten crewed, were launched by Titan II launchers. Based within super-hardened silos, deep beneath the ground, the Titan's concrete and steel reinforced facilities were able to withstand the massive pressure of a nuclear blast. Its inertial guidance system gave an accuracy of 900 meters CEP and was capable of making in-flight corrections without ground control input.

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