From 1 billion years, and for about 12.8 billion years, the universe has looked much as it does today. God had no particular relation to one part of the infinite universe more than any other. 1584 - Giordano Bruno proposes a non-hierarchical cosmology, wherein the Copernican solar system is not the Centrex of the universe, but rather, a relatively insignificant star system, amongst an infinite multitude of others (God had no particular relation to one part of the infinite universe more than any other). Applying the virial theorem to his observations of the Coma cluster of galaxies, Fritz Zwicky deduces the existence of dark matter holding galaxies together. Research is ongoing to understand this dark energy. [37] As the universe cools, from around 47,000 years (redshift z = 3600),[2] the universe's large scale behaviour becomes dominated by matter instead. [68][69] "Dark" in this context means that it is not directly observed, but can currently only be studied by examining the effect it has on the universe. The exact point where electrostrong symmetry was broken is not certain, owing to speculative and as yet incomplete theoretical knowledge. Either the Earth was fixed, or else the stars would have to be fantastically far away. As the universe continued to cool and expand, reionization gradually ended. These may also lead to unpredictable changes to the state of the universe which would not be likely to be significant on any smaller timescale. At this point non-linear structures begin to form, and the computational problem becomes much more difficult, involving, for example, N-body simulations with billions of particles. that In this work, one of the most influential books of Antiquity, Ptolemy compiled the astronomical knowledge of the ancient Greek and Babylonian world; he relied mainly on the work of Hipparchus of three centuries earlier. This is not apparent in everyday life, because it only happens at far higher temperatures than we usually see in our present universe. It was preserved, like most of Classical Greek science, in Arabic manuscripts and only made available in Latin translation in the 12th century. Gravitationally bound systems, such as clusters of galaxies, galaxies, and ultimately the Solar System will be torn apart. Albert Einstein is widely celebrated as one of the most brilliant scientists who ever lived. (We do not have separate observations of very early individual stars; the earliest observed stars are discovered as participants in very early galaxies.) (The electroweak interaction will also separate later, dividing into the electromagnetic and weak interactions.) Dark energy is now believed to be the single largest component of the universe, as it constitutes about 68.3% of the entire mass-energy of the physical universe. "(George Orwell), "Hell is Truth Seen Too Late. Other than perhaps some rare statistical anomalies, the universe was truly dark. Modern cosmological ideas follow the development of the scientific discipline of physical cosmology. In either case, these early generations of supernovae created most of the everyday elements we see around us today, and seeded the universe with them. Bruno's infinite universe was filled with a substance - a pure air, aether, or spiritus - that offered no resistance to the heavenly bodies which, in Bruno's view, rather than being fixed, moved under their own impetus. [54] They also show that the absorption was due to the general state of the universe (the intergalactic medium) and not due to passing through galaxies or other dense areas. Though he predated Copernicus by half a century, Nicholas suggested in some of his scientific writings that the Earth was a nearly spherical shape that revolved around the Sun, and that each star is itself a distant sun. About 25% of the protons, and all[24] the neutrons fuse to form deuterium, a hydrogen isotope, and most of the deuterium quickly fuses to form helium-4. With these instruments Herschel made two major discoveries that had an important bearing on our understanding of the cosmos. Extended sample", "BICEP2 March 2014 Results and Data Products", "NASA Technology Views Birth of the Universe", "Space Ripples Reveal Big Bang's Smoking Gun", "Astronomers Hedge on Big Bang Detection Claim", "Cosmic inflation: Confidence lowered for Big Bang signal", "Gravitational Waves from Early Universe Remain Elusive", "Speck of Interstellar Dust Obscures Glimpse of Big Bang", "The Foreground of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis", "Cosmic Neutrinos Detected, Confirming The Big Bang's Last Great Prediction", "Gravitationally Collapsed Objects of Very Low Mass", Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, "Thermal history of the universe and early growth of density fluctuations", Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, "Astronomy 162 — Lecture 44: The First Three Minutes", The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, "Astronomers Finally Spot Universe's First Molecule in Distant Nebula", "New 'Baby Picture' of Universe Unveiled", "Quasars illustrate dark energy's roller coaster ride", "Searching for First Light in the Early Universe", "Much-Discussed Views That Go Way Back - Avi Loeb Ponders the Early Universe, Nature and Life", "First stars formed even later than we thought", "Hubble Team Breaks Cosmic Distance Record (03/03/2016) - Fast Facts", "Ancient Galaxy May Be Most Distant Ever Seen", Publications of the Astronomical Society of Australia, "Illuminating illumination: what lights up the universe?
At some time the Stelliferous Era will end as stars are no longer being born, and the expansion of the universe will mean that the observable universe becomes limited to local galaxies. To explain the observed homogeneity of the universe, the duration in these models must be longer than 10−32 seconds. Stephen Hawking calculated in 1971 that primordial black holes could have a mass as low as 10−5 g.[28] But they can have any size, so they could also be large, and may have contributed to the formation of galaxies.  (10%), where
The majority of hadrons and anti-hadrons annihilate each other at the end of the hadron epoch, leaving leptons (such as the electron, muons and certain neutrinos) and antileptons, dominating the mass of the universe. About 4 billion years ago the expansion gradually began to speed up again. At some point around 200 to 500 million years, the earliest generations of stars and galaxies form (exact timings are still being researched), and early large structures gradually emerge, drawn to the foam-like dark matter filaments which have already begun to draw together throughout the universe. But these are all still areas of active research. So a range of models exist that explain why and how it took place—it is not yet clear which explanation is correct. From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core, For a timeline of the cosmos (or universe), see, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Graphical timeline from Big Bang to Heat Death, Timeline of cosmic microwave background astronomy, "Introduction to Astronomy, Containing the Eight Divided Books of Abu Ma'shar Abalachus", "Fakhr Al-Din Al-Razi on Physics and the Nature of the Physical World: A Preliminary Survey", "NASA Technology Views Birth of the Universe", "Space Ripples Reveal Big Bang's Smoking Gun", "Detection of B-Mode Polarization at Degree Angular Scales by BICEP2",, "Astronomers Hedge on Big Bang Detection Claim", "Cosmic inflation: Confidence lowered for Big Bang signal",, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2014, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, About Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core. If primordial black holes exist, they are also formed at about one second of cosmic time. Although there was light, it was not possible to see, nor can we observe that light through telescopes.

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